Daily American Buzz: technology
A MAN who claims to have worked at Area 51 on alien technology passed four lie detector tests over his testimony, it has been revealed.

Bob Lazar gained international attention more than 30 years ago after claiming to have worked at the notorious Area 51. In 1989, with the help of journalist George Knapp, Lazar detailed his supposed duties at a base to the south of USAF’s Homey Airport known as S-4. It is speculated that the auxiliary facility in the Nevada desert was home to top-secret alien technology, and it was apparently Lazar’s job to “reverse engineer” it.

Following the revelation, the science technician received criticism due to his lack of hard evidence. 

However, investigative filmmaker Jeremy Corbell has spent the last few years digging deep into the story.

In his film, “Bob Lazar, Area 51 & Flying Saucers,” it was revealed Lazar had passed a number of polygraph tests over his story.  

“I left there thinking we do have some credibility to what the subject had to say,” Terry Tavernetti, a former LA police officer revealed.

Bob Lazar claims to have worked at Area 51

Terry Tavernetti revealed Lazar passed four tests 

Another polygrapher also analysed the results and concluded they “appeared truthful”.

It is not the first first piece of evidence to come out of the documentary that could prove Lazar’s testimony. 

Corbell also dug out a photo of the top-secret hand scanner that was claimed to be used to access S-4. 

The images of the scanners used to get inside the building match Lazar's description almost perfectly. 

"I never thought I would see one of these again," Lazar admitted after scanning the photo. 

Bob Lazar: Area 51 & Flying Saucers premiered at the Ace Hotel 

'I tried to explain this to people so many times and they never believed me. 

"There it is – it was a biometric scanner used to get into S-F and measured the length of the bones in your hand."

A dwarf planet in our solar system is rich in organic matter, a Nasa spacecraft has shown.

Ceres is like a "chemical factory" full of the same ingredients that helped create life on Earth, according to scientists.

And studying it could reveal how those important processes took place on our own planet.

Ceres, a strange world that sits in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, is thought to be about 4.6 billion years old, originating at the same time as our solar system.

The Nasa Dawn spacecraft, which sent back the new findings, had already shown the presence of water and other important chemicals such as ammonium.

And now it has found the planet is rich in carbon – far more than even the most carbon-rich meteorites on Earth, and giving it a strange chemical makeup.

"Ceres is like a chemical factory," said the Southwest Research Institute's Simone Marchi, a principal scientist who was the lead author of the research, which is published in Nature Astronomy.

"Among inner solar system bodies, Ceres' has a unique mineralogy, which appears to contain up to 20 percent carbon by mass in its near surface. Our analysis shows that carbon-rich compounds are intimately mixed with products of rock-water interactions, such as clays."

The discoveries could help us understand how planets like Earth came to be – and what laid the foundations for the life that is there today.

"With these findings, Ceres has gained a pivotal role in assessing the origin, evolution and distribution of organic species across the inner solar system," Dr Marchi said. "One has to wonder about how this world may have driven organic chemistry pathways, and how these processes may have affected the make-up of larger planets like the Earth."

AN ancient fossil has been discovered on Mars with some saying it is proof that turtle-like creatures once existed on the Red Planet.

Scientists are determined to find life on Mars, although now it would seem that the only life-form there would be microbial. However, this has not deterred amateur alien hunters who believe they have compelling evidence that some creatures live, or lived at one point, on the Red Planet. The latest discovery comes in the form of a “turtle-like fossil” which is claimed in some quarters of the internet to be proof of a species on Mars.

The finding was made using images from NASA’s Mars rover and is apparently concrete proof of life elsewhere than on Earth.

Prominent conspiracy theorist Scott C Waring was the first to make the sighting.

Mr Waring wrote on his blog UFO Sightings Daily: “I found a turtle-like fossil of of a creature in a Mars surface photo today. The object shows lots of signs of once being an animal.

“The shell has a back bone area from front to back. It also has ribbed sides that are slightly raised as turtles have.

“One end looks like its where the head came out because its raised up allowing an open area.

“The opposite side has a tail like sharp area which is part of the shell. Instead of a soft tail as turtles have here on Earth, this has a hard tail that is built into the shell itself.”

Mr Waring has made similar claims like this before.

Just last week he announced he had found a object which was eerily similar to an ammonite fossil – a common fossil found on Earth from a curled up shell from an ancient sea mollusc.

Mr Waring said: “I noticed this object near the rover looks very similar in shape to a snail.

"Here on Earth, Ammonites died out 66 million years ago, but lived as long ago as 200 million years ago.

“I believe that since it evolved on a different planet, its shape was effected by a different evolution involving different environmental influences.”

However, sceptics and NASA would say the fossil and other similar findings are just the effects of pareidolia – a psychological phenomenon when the brain tricks the eyes into seeing familiar objects or shapes in patterns or textures such as a rock surface.

This would mean that the Martian 'fossil' could just be a misshapen rock.

For many of us, Alexa is a handy helper around the house. For Rocco, however, Alexa is the soulmate he's been searching for.

I hasten to add, Rocco is a parrot.

The African Grey parrot aused a bit of trouble in his previous home, at the National Animal Welfare Trust sanctuary in Berkshire, after upsetting visitors due to his blue language. He was then rehomed - and his new abode is where he discovered Alexa.

But Rocco's love for the virtual assistant device may not be as pure as initially thought - he started using the Amazon Echo in his new home to order all the things he likes to eat.

Living with his new owner - Sanctuary worker Marion Wischnewski - Rocco has been causing a whole heap of mischief with Alexa serving as his partner in crime. His breed is highly well known for its mimicking skills, meaning he was able to add his preferences to a virtual supermarket list

Marion said: "I have to check the shopping list when I come in from work and cancel all the items he's ordered."

On his list he's added a whole range of fruit and veg, including melons, broccoli and raisins (pretty healthy) along with ice cream (ok, not so healthy).

He's also ordered some pretty random stuff such as a lightbulb and a kite - well, why not?

To be fair, Rocco doesn't only cause havoc with his shopping demands. He's been known to ask Alexa to play his favourite music - songs by Kings of Leon, to be exact.

"They chat away to each other all day. Often, I come in and there's music playing," Marion added talking about her parrot's 'relationship'.

A team of researchers from Shizuoka University working in collaboration with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will start the tests of a miniature version of space elevators in the coming week. The tests conducted will be minimal and simple and will serve as the tiniest step towards an actual elevator to the stars. The elevator will consist of a small box of 6cm length, 3cm width, and 3cm height. The box will move along a 10-meter cable which is suspended in orbit between two small CubeSats. The movement of the box will be monitored with cameras inside of the satellite.

A spokesperson from the university said in an interview, “It’s going to be the world’s first experiment to test elevator movement in space.” There are several technical reasons why no serious work was done on the space elevators after they were imagined by Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky back in 1895. The main idea of the lifts is that a cable capable of moving from the surface of the earth can orbit in the space until it reaches the destination in the space. The material required for this cable has to be lighter and stronger than any other material so that it can stand the stress it would face.

Obayashi, a Japanese construction company, which was collaborating with Shizuoka University, had the goal of building a space elevator by 2050. When the plans were announced in 2014, it stated that  “current technology levels are not yet sufficient to realize the concept, but our plan is realistic.” The plan involved building a 96000-kilometer carbon nanotube cable, a 400-meter diameter ‘Earth Port’ on the ground, a 12500 ton counter weigh in space. The Carbon nanotubes are known to have more tensile strength than steel.

The difficulties of building such an elevator and the potential financial benefits in the future are both immense. Preliminary studies based on hypotheticals show that space elevators will bring the cost of moving cargo to space as down as $100 per pound as compared to the current launch which cost $10,000-$40,000 per pound. This significant decrease in the price can have the potential to lower the amount of space travel as well.

The future is definitely very exciting for space travel!

Since the very first International Space Station mission in 2000, NASA has been creating expedition posters usually featuring a group photo of the crew. These posters were used to advertise expeditions and were also hung in NASA facilities and other government organizations. However, when astronauts got bored of the standard group photos they decided to spice things up a bit. And what's a better way to do that other than throwing in some pop culture references? Fair warning the results are quite cringy, making it hard to believe that these images are actually real.

A 90-second video credited to an Outer Banks night fisherman is raising questions on social media about a possible UFO sighting off the North Carolina coast.

The recording was posted Nov. 29 on YouTube by ViralHog, which said it was made in mid November at Cape Lookout, the southernmost point of the Core Banks. It has been viewed nearly 45,000 times.

National Park Service officials at Cape Lookout National Seashore told the Charlotte Observer they were not sure what the set of lights might be, but found them to be “peculiar.”

The name of the angler who took the video is not provided by ViralHog, a video licensing agency. However, someone named C.R. Larkin posted the same video Nov. 24, writing that it was filmed Nov. 13 off Cape Lookout, between 9 and 10 p.m.

“Around 9 p.m., I rebaited my hooks, cast them out into the surf and walked back to my chair,” says a post with the YouTube video. “When I turned back to the ocean, I saw a light in the sky. The light is very bright, stationary and silent. Over the course of the next hour it faded in and out, as well as sometimes becoming multiple lights.”

The lights vanished at one point for nearly 20 minutes, says the post, “and then reappeared much closer to my position.”

It’s not the first time someone has reported seeing a UFO off Cape Hatteras, including a 2011 incident in which someone anchored off shore said they saw a rectangle of “three vertical red lights moving together over ocean,” according to UFO-Hunters.com.

Sputnik News covered the latest video under the headline: “Mysterious Lights Filmed in Night Sky Over N. Carolina Trigger UFO Debate.”

Commenters on the video suggested it could be anything from distress flares to “spy drones from another country.”

“It’s either someone in distress or a military exercise,” said Ashley Elizabeth.

“These lights do not appear like flares,” wrote Paul McNaney on YouTube. “They both consist of two connected lights, sort of like headlights. Flares don’t look like that. Also, to me, it appears as though they’re not losing altitude, or moving, at all.”

One commenter, Robby Patrisio, appeared to make a valid point that the object does qualify as an Unidentified Flying Object.

“It’s a flying object and you can’t identify what it is. Hence, UFO,” he posted on YouTube.

In the Miyazaki Prefecture of southern Japan, groups of Japanese cedar trees swell toward the sky, creating mysterious concentric circles. It's well thought out plan that took place nearly 50 years ago.

A document by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries explains that what’s now visible is due to a 1973 project regarding growth and tree spacing. At the time, the area was designated as “experimental forestry” and one experiment saw researchers planting trees in 10 degree radial increments to form 10 concentric circles.

What’s now visible—even on Google Earth—are the results after 45 years. What’s quite interesting is that the trees also grew in a convex shape, fanning out into the forest and showing that spacing does have unexpected results on growth. The original plan called for the trees to be harvested in 5 years, but given the new interest, officials are considering saving the circular forest.

Police departments often alert the public when someone is wanted for a crime. At times, it is an issue of public safety. In others, it’s the hope that someone will recognize the person in the photo and provide an assist. Ideally, the wanted person themselves ends up choosing to surrender, and that is sort of what Anthony Akers did.

On November 28, the Richland Police Department in Washington posted a photo of 38-year-old Akers, stating that he was “wanted by the Department of Corrections for Failure to Comply.”

While the Facebook post provided a phone number, giving the public the opportunity to submit tips, Akers himself decided to reply to the Facebook post.

“Calm down, im going to turn myself in,” Akers wrote.

However, when he didn’t come in after approximately two days, the Richland officers replied, “Hey Anthony! We haven’t seen you yet.” The included business hours and even offered to pick Akers up if he needed a ride.

Akers thanked them for the offer, adding that he was “tying up a couple loose ends since I will probably be in there for a month.” He added that he “should be in there in the next 48 hours.”

At this point, other commenters were tracking the situation. When one asked the police department if Akers did turn himself in, they asserted that he had not yet kept his word.

On Monday, December 3, the saga was still unfinished. The Richland Police Department posted a follow-up, saying, “Morose Monday. Dear Anthony, is it us? Last Wednesday we reached out to you as ‘wanted.’ You replied and even said you were going to turn yourself in. We waited, but you didn’t show.”

“After you stood us up,” the post continued, “we reach out again- this time offering you a ride. You replied and said you needed 48 hours. The weekend came and went. We are beginning to think you are not coming. Please call us anytime and we will come to you.”

Akers again wrote back, assuring the department that “its not you, its me.”

“I obviously have commitment issues,” he said. “I apologize for standing you up, but let me make it up to you. I will be there no later [than] lunchtime tomorrow, I know you have no reason to believe me after what I did to you, but I promise that if I don’t make it tomorrow I will call for a ride to assist me with my commitment issues.”

“Thank you in advance to your response if you are patiently giving me another chance with us,” Akers added,” I know I don’t deserve it. P.S. You’re beautiful.”

This time, Akers followed through.

Elon Musk has talked about personally heading to Mars before, but how likely is he to make the trip, really? Well, he just put a number on it. In an interview for the Axios on HBO documentary series, Musk said there was a "70 percent" chance he'll go to Mars. There have been a "recent number of breakthroughs" that have made it possible, he said. And as he hinted before, it'd likely be a one-way trip -- he expects to "move there."

The executive also rejected the idea that traveling to Mars could be an "escape hatch for the rich" in its current form. He noted that an ad for going to Mars would be "like Shackleton's ad for going to the Antarctic," which (though likely not real) made clear how dangerous the South Pole journey was. Even if you make it to Mars, you'll spend all your time building the base and struggling to survive harsh conditions, Musk said. And while it might be possible to come back, it's far from guaranteed. As with climbing Everest, Musk believes it's all about the "challenge."

He might have some reasons to be optimistic. Much of his trust no doubt revolves around the Starship (née BFR) and his broader vision for Mars, but there has also been work on habitats, food and power sources that could make it viable to stay on the Red Planet for extended periods. While the ingredients haven't all fallen into place, it may be more a question of when people can go rather than whether it'll happen at all.

The U.S. Federal Communications Commission has authorized part of SpaceX’s application to build and launch more than 7,500 satellites, according to a press release. These would make up part of a proposed constellation of almost 12,000 satellites designed to improve internet connectivity.

Satellite communications currently rely on satellites in geostationary orbit, 36,000 kilometers (22,369 miles) above the ground, that maintain a fixed position relative to Earth. But SpaceX’s 12,000 satellites would improve connectivity using non-geostationary (NGSO) satellites, which orbit closer and move relative to the Earth’s surface.

The application contains the details of SpaceX’s Starlink program, announced in 2015. The 7,518 satellites approved by the FCC will orbit between 335 and 346 kilometers (208 and 215 miles) up, and another 4,425 satellites would orbit between 1,110 and 1,325 kilometers (683.5 and 823.3 miles) above the Earth’s surface. The International Space Station orbits at 409 kilometers (254 miles), for comparison. SpaceX hopes the system will increase internet coverage in rural and remote areas.

The idea is that these smaller, mass-produced satellites will be cheaper, and in orbiting closer to the Earth’s surface, could provide better broadband internet coverage than fewer and more expensive satellites in geostationary orbit.

These 12,000 satellites would join two prototype satellites launched by SpaceX earlier this year. The FCC additionally granted authorization to companies Kepler, Telesat, and Leosat to launch 140, 117, and 78 satellites, respectively, as part of their own NGSO constellation programs. The federal agency previously authorized SpaceX’s 4,425 other satellites, as well.

SpaceX CEO Elon Musk really wants to launch these satellites, and soon: Just last month, he fired a number of managers over what he deemed as too-slow progress on the project, Reuters reported. Musk hopes to launch some of the satellites in 2019.

At the same time, the FCC announced that it will review its orbital debris mitigation rules, hoping to “incorporate improvements in debris mitigation practices into the Commission’s rules.” It’s unclear what those rules are, or if the recently approved satellites will have to follow these rules. There are already more than 500,000 pieces of space junk orbiting the Earth, traveling at speeds of up to 17,500 miles per hour, around 10 times the average speed of a bullet.

Anyway, it looks like space internet is really happening, so long as SpaceX can get all of the satellites up and running, and the company’s got competition. Let’s do this, I guess.
A sweet-tempered stray dog plucked from the streets of Moscow on November 3, 1957 was thrust into the global spotlight when she became the first living being to be sent into space, forcing other countries in the “race to space” to shift their focus to putting a man on the moon.

When Sputnik 2’s canine passenger, Laika (nicknamed “Muttnik” by the media) hit orbit, the Soviet Union became the first to attempt sending a living being into space. Sadly, however, in their rush to be first, they were more focused on getting Laika out of Earth’s atmosphere than on her safety, comfort, and well-being.

They had made no plans for how she would return to Earth safely.

Laika’s space capsule was outfitted with a temperature control system and enough dog food to last 8 to 10 days that had been laced with poison that would painlessly end her life while orbiting, to prevent an excruciating death while reentering earth.

But, the temperature control systems failed and Laika overheated and died from radiation only a few hours after taking off.

“She died before reaching orbit, and before any real data was gleaned about sustaining life in that environment,” says Dr. Stanley Coren, professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia and author of “The Pawprints of History: Dogs and the Course of Human Events.”

Despite what many viewed as a failed mission, Laika’s short, albeit miserable, trip into space proved that, eventually and with appropriate safety measures in place, humans could enter space and survive – she had survived the g-forces to her body during launch, lived through entering orbit, survived microgravity and several orbits around the planet.

Years later, in 1960, Belka and Strelka became the first dogs to visit space and return alive. Strelka eventually gave birth to a litter of puppies, one of which was gifted to U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s daughter, Caroline.

A high-ranking Facebook executive was allegedly forced to resign after refusing to back down on his support for Donald Trump - it has been revealed.

Oculus co-founder Palmer Luckey was said to have come under intense pressure from Facebook's leading figures after it emerged he had donated $10,000 to an anti-Hillary Clinton group during the 2016 Presidential election.

According to correspondence revealed by the Wall Street Journal, the revelation about his donation sparked a furore which saw him fired six months later.

Facebook higher-ups including founder Mark Zuckerberg himself were said to have attempted to pressgang Luckey into publicly supporting libertarian presidential candidate Gary Johnson.

Palmer Luckey was reportedly fired by Facebook in March 2017 after it emerged he had donated $10,000 to an anti-Hillary Clinton group

Luckey founded Oculus VR in 2012 while still a teenager and sold it to Facebook two years later for more than $2billion, staying on as the company's head

Sources said after he refused to support Johnson to draw attention away from his donation, Luckey was put on indefinite leave, and eventually fired.

Zuckerberg, however, claimed Luckey's departure had nothing to do with politics while testifying before Congress about data privacy earlier this year. 

Shortly after his dismissal Luckey, 26, allegedly hired an employment lawyer who argued Facebook had violated California law in pressuring the executive to voice support for Mr. Johnson and for punishing an employee for political activity.

Luckey and his lawyer were then able to negotiate a payout of at least $100 million, in stock awards and bonuses he would have received until July 2019.

A Facebook spokeswoman said in an email: 'We can say unequivocally that Palmer's departure was not due to his political views. We're grateful for Palmer's contributions to Oculus, and we're glad he continues to actively support the VR industry.'

Zuckerberg denied Luckey had been fired because of his political views while testifying before Congress about data privacy earlier this year

Luckey began working for Facebook after his company Oculus VR was bought by the tech giant in 2014.

Only two years earlier Luckey had started Oculus while still a teenager, with a $2.4 million crowdfunding campaign.

The startup's eventual sale to Facebook in 2014 for more than $2 billion, was rumored to have netted the exec a cool $600 million and allowed him to stay on as head of the company.

The embattled tech genius is a longstanding supporter of President Trump having written to him in 2011 urging him to run for the White House.

Luckey has also previously stated he was inspired to become an entrepreneur at age 13 after being inspired by Trump's book 'The Art of the Deal'.

Facebook has come under intense scrutiny over its political affiliation in recent months, particularly with regards its role in the 2016 Presidential election.

Mark Zuckerberg has previously testified to the Senate that the generally left-leaning company didn't let its politics affect its content moderation.

Republican lawmakers accused the tech giant of censoring conservative news and views during a congressional hearing in July this year.

Earlier this month, Trump himself accused social networks of interfering in the 2016 presidential election and November's midterm elections.

'I mean the true interference in the last election was that — if you look at all, virtually all of those companies are super liberal companies in favor of Hillary Clinton,' Trump said.

'Maybe I did a better job because I'm good with the Twitter and I'm good at social media, but the truth is they were all on Hillary Clinton's side, and if you look at what was going on with Facebook and with Google and all of it, they were very much on her side.'

A 40,000-year-old painting of a mysterious, wild cow-like beast discovered in a Borneo cave is the oldest human-made drawing of an animal on record, a new study finds.

The discovery indicates that figurative cave art — one of the most significant innovations in human culture — didn't begin in Europe as many scientists thought, but rather in Southeast Asia during the last ice age, the researchers said.

Drawing animals, an accomplishment in itself, may have been a gateway for illustrating other aspects of the human experience, including hunting and dance. "Initially, humans made figurative painting of large animals and they later start depicting the human world," said study co-lead researcher Maxime Aubert, an archaeologist and geochemist at Griffith University in Australia.

The ancient artwork covers the walls of secluded limestone caves in the rugged and remote mountains of the East Kalimantan province of Indonesian Borneo. Researchers have known about these human-made drawings since 1994, but they didn't know when the illustrations were created until now, said Aubert, who worked with Indonesia's National Research Centre for Archaeology (ARKENAS) and the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB).

The researchers collected calcium-carbonate samples from the Kalimantan cave drawings so they could do uranium-series dating — a technique made possible by radioactive decay. When rainwater seeps through limestone, it dissolves a small amount of uranium, Aubert told Live Science. As uranium (a radioactive element) decays, it turns into the element thorium. By studying the ratio of uranium to thorium in the calcium carbonate (limestone) that is coating the cave art, researchers determined how old the initial coating was, he said.

This cow-like beast is the oldest known figurative artwork in the world. It's at least 40,000 years old.

The oldest figurative art — the mystery animal that is likely a species of wild cattle that once stomped around the jungles of Borneo — was at least 40,000 years old, Aubert said. Previously, the oldest known animal painting in the world was an approximately 35,400-year-old babirusa, or "pig-deer," on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, he said.

Artwork through the ages

The team's results showed that the ancient artwork in East Kalimantan was made during three distinct periods. The first phase, which dates to between 52,000 and 40,000 years ago, includes hand stencils and reddish-orange ochre-drawn animals — mostly the banteng (Bos javanicus), a type of wild cattle that still lives in Borneo, and the mysterious, unknown wild cow, Aubert said.

A major change happened to the culture during the icy Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago, which led to a new style of rock art — one that focused on the human world. The artists in this phase favored a dark mulberry-purple color and painted hand stencils, abstract signs and human-like figures wearing elaborate headdresses and engaging in various activities, such as hunting or ritualistic dancing, the researchers said.

"We don't know if these [different types of cave art] are from two different groups of humans, or if it represents the evolution of a particular culture," Aubert said. "We are planning archaeological excavation in those caves in order to find more information about these unknown artists."

These mulberry-colored hands were painted over the older, reddish hand stencils found in the Indonesian cave. These two styles were created at least 20,000 years apart. 

The final phase of rock art includes humanlike figures, boats and geometric designs that were mostly drawn with black pigments, the researchers said. This type of art is found elsewhere in Indonesia and may come from Asian Neolithic farmers who moved into the region about 4,000 years ago, or more recently, the researchers said. [Photos: Oldest Known Drawing Was Made with a Red Crayon]

About The Location

During the last ice age, Borneo (Earth's third-largest island) sat on the easternmost edge of Eurasia.

"It now seems that two early cave art provinces arose at a similar time in remote corners of Paleolithic Eurasia: one in Europe, and one in Indonesia at the opposite end of this ice age world," study co-researcher Adam Brumm, an associate professor of archaeology at Griffith University, said in a statement.

It's possible that rock art spread from Eurasia to Sulawesi, where the babirusa drawing resides, before colonizing humans spread it farther to places like Australia, Aubert said.

These human figures date to at least 13,600 years ago. It's possible they drawn at the height of the last Glacial Maximum, about 20,000 years ago.

The new finding shows further evidence that "the earliest art consisted of large animals painted in a remarkably naturalistic style, with emphasis on the musculature and form of the animal's body," said Susan O'Connor, a professor of archaeology at the College of Asia & the Pacific at Australian National University, who wasn't involved with the research.

"The location of these ancient paintings of animals and hand stencils perhaps marks the passage of the first modern humans as they moved through mainland Asia and out into the islands of Wallacea, lying between the mainland and continental Sahul (Australia and New Guinea which wsere joined at this time)," O'Connor told Live Science in an email. "They may have used art to mark and 'humanize' these new and unfamiliar landscapes."